Goldfish

Goldfish are extremely common. Almost everyone has met one at some point. Unfortunately, they have a bad reputation for being unintelligent that is completely undeserved. They have an attention span of up to 9 seconds, a memory that lasts for years, can recognize you, and can even learn tricks!

I would like to point out that this page is only the basic care requirements. Find and use at least three other good sources to confirm your knowledge, to make sure that all information is correct. Everyone makes mistakes, and there may be some mistakes in my information here. If you do find a mistake, please write a comment explaining the mistake, and the source that said otherwise. Thanks! 🙂

Pros

  • They don’t have a strong smell
  • They are quiet
  • They don’t need yearly vet checkups
  • They are eager to see you
  • They are fun to watch
  • They don’t make a big mess
  • They are long lived (up to 40 years!)
  • They can’t bite you
  • They are easy to find ethically

Cons

  • They can grow to more than a foot long
  • They require complex care
  • They are not suitable for young children
  • They need a large enclosure or intensive care
  • They are not cuddly or affectionate
  • They are easily startled
  • They are extremely social, and should be kept in groups
  • There is a lot of misinformation on their care

How many goldfish should I get?

NEVER keep just one goldfish. Goldfish are social animals that live in large groups (6+, preferably!). Keeping one lonely goldfish (other than in quarantine) is animal abuse, and should not be tolerated. Single goldfish have shorter lifespans, higher stress, and are more likely to die early. ALWAYS keep at least two goldfish.

What kind of goldfish are there?

There are many breeds of goldfish, and each one is special in its own way. Some are hardier or more delicate than others, and some aren’t even ethical to breed or adopt at all!

Please note that the photos are of non-stunted adults, although individual fish may grow to be larger, or be stunted due to their environment. Also, some breeds can actually cohabitate successfully, but many precautions must be taken, and it all depends on the individuals.

Fancy bodied goldfish tend to have mobility issues, and are more prone to disease and stress. Goldfish in general are a species that we as humans have really messed up. Many of the breeds probably should have never existed for the health and safety of the fish.

Slim bodied breeds:

  • Common or “feeder”

Best kept in ponds, these guys are fast, get huge, and are very agile. Usually not suitable for living with other goldfish breeds because they will out-compete them (with some exceptions depending on the individuals).

  • Comet

Basically a common goldfish with a long and deeply forked tail. They can live with other slim bodied goldfish other than the Common.

  • Shubunkin

Developed to mimic koi but stay smaller, these guys have the same care as Comets, just different colouring and markings such as calico.

  • Wakin

They are slightly chubbier than the other slim-bodies, but still much slimmer than the fancies. They have a forked double tail.

  • Jinkin

The are white with red lips and some red markings, but the same outline as the Wakin.

  • Watonai

They have long and flowing double tail fins and the body of the Wakin.

Fancy breeds:

  • Fantail

They are the fancy-bodied version of the Wakin. They are hardier than the other fancies, but still should not be kept with slimmer bodied fish.

  • Ryukin

They tend to be somewhat more aggressive, and have a very deep body and a double tail. Don’t keep them with fish that have flowing fins or delicate extremities.

  • Tamasaba

They are pretty much just single-tailed Ryukins.

  • Telescope/Popeye/Demekin/Dragon Eye

They have protruding eyes with bad vision, which are sensitive to damage. Don’t keep them in a tank with other breeds, sharp plants, or lots of decor. It is not recommended to support their breeding, due to quality of life issues.

  • Black Moor

They are solid black, matte scaled version of the Telescope. They have the same issues as Telescopes as well.

  • Panda Moor

They are a black and white version of the Telescope, with the same problems.

  • Veiltail/Broadtail

They have long and flowing fins, and a double tail that slows them down. Don’t keep them in a tank with other breeds.

  • Butterfly

They have a double tail that, when viewed from above, forms the shape of a butterfly. They usually have Telescope eyes, which causes some ethical and quality of life problems.

  • Oranda

They have a wen on their head that makes them look a bit like they are wearing a Halloween mask. It gets larger as they age.

  • Pom Pom

They have look like they have Pom Poms coming out of their nostrils. They may or may not have a dorsal fin. They should not be kept with other breeds. The Pom Poms don’t hurt them, but they can get in the way of their sight, so please don’t support their breeding.

  • Tosakin

They have don’t have a forked tail. It sits horizontally. They are one of the most delicate breeds, and must be treated with caution. They cannot live with other breeds. Because they are so delicate, they probably should have never existed at all, lovely though the individuals are.

  • Pearlscale

They have special scales that shine and are spread out on a round body. Some have a crown or double crown. They have mobility issues caused by their shape, and probably should not be bred.

  • Lionhead

They have a double tail and a wen that covers their whole face. They have no dorsal fin.

  • Ranchu

Ranchus and Lionheads look the same, except that Ranchus have a rounder back and a tighter tail tuck.

  • Phoenix

They have a long flowing double tail, and no dorsal fin.

  • Celestial

They are not ethical to breed. They can’t see their food or forage properly because they have eyes that face the sky. Please do not support the breeding or keeping of this breed, and rescue them from rehoming situations only. They can’t be kept with other breeds.

  • Froghead/Toadhead

They have delicate sacs under their eyes and chubby cheeks. They are also an ethical grey area, and I would not recommend supporting their breeding. They can not be kept with other breeds.

  • Bubble-eye

They have large, fluid-filled sacs (which are usually even on both sides) under their eyes that are extremely delicate, and hinder their movement. They are not ethical to breed or purchase from a breeder due to the damage the fluid sacs do to their quality of life. Please rescue them from rehoming situations only. They can’t be kept with other breeds.

What other fish species can live with goldfish?

Goldfish generally don’t get along with other fish species, but some can live with them under careful supervision. Don’t put other fish species in with delicate breeds that can’t live with other breeds safely.

Snails and other aquatic invertebrates are good for your tank, but make sure that they are safe from your goldfish and enjoy the water quality.

Choose fish that get to a decent size, have the same water requirements, and aren’t likely to harm your goldfish. Rosy barbs and Dojo loaches are great examples of nippy and aggressive fish that are not suitable for life with goldfish.

Goldfish with long flowing fins should not be kept with other species of fish.

Be sure to do your research before choosing an additional species. They deserve the best care possible too! Make sure your tank has enough space for both your goldfish and the other fish. More goldfish is better than lots of fish of other species.

  • Koi

They are not recommended for life with goldfish because they tend to be more aggressive, but if the common goldfish are large and the koi are greatly outnumbered, it shouldn’t be too much of an issue. Be aware that Koi need much more space than goldfish do (100 gallons per fish is recommended), and should only live in ponds. A link to my guide on Koi care will go here.

  • Zebra Danio

They are best in tanks, and in large groups, but do have very similar requirements in water quality. Make sure that they are not small enough to be eaten by the goldfish. A link to my guide on Zebra Danio care will go here.

  • White Cloud Mountain Minnow

They need to be kept in groups of 6 or more, but more is better. They can be a bit nippy and stay pretty small, so it depends on the individuals involved. They are best with fancy and short-finned goldfish, who are too slow to catch them, and dont have tantalizing long fins. A link to my guide on White Cloud Mountain Minnow care will go here.

  • Bristlenose Pleco

They are the only Plecos that are mostly safe to put in with goldfish. Do not keep them with fancy goldfish. They can attack your goldfish just as the other Plecos do, but they are less likely to. A link to my guide on Bristlenose Pleco care will go here.

  • Hillstream Loach

They enjoy a strong water flow, and are very sensitive to warmer water. They seem like a safer option than some of the other species listed here. A link to my guide on Hillstream Loach care will go here.

  • Platy

They are a bit controversial on this subject. Some people say that they are great tank mates, and others say that they are too tropical to live in water that is safe for goldfish. They thrive at temperatures from 23 to 25 degrees Celsius (75 to 78 degrees Fahrenheit), but do well in 20 degrees Celsius (68 degrees Fahrenheit). If you were to keep them, be sure to have a separate tropical tank just in case they get sick. I would not recommend it, but some people have had success with them. A link to my guide on Platy care will go here.

Where should I get my goldfish?

  1. Shelters or Rescues
    • Are cheap to adopt from
    • Never give you an unhealthy animal (without notifying you of any potential illnesses, injuries or deformities)
    • Don’t support unethical practices or inhumane treatment of the animals
    • Are unlikely to carry goldfish
  2. Rehoming Situations
    • Are cheapest to adopt from
    • May give you an unhealthy animal
    • Must be examined to determine whether or not they are safe and/or ethical to adopt from
    • Many goldfish are in need!
  3. Responsible and Reputable Breeders
    • Are more expensive to adopt from
    • Never give you an unhealthy or aggressive animal
    • Don’t support unethical practices or inhumane treatment of the animals
    • Are less helpful to adopt from, due to the excess of goldfish in need

Your local SPCA, animal control centres, or rescues may have a goldfish for adoption. Check on Petfinder, Adopt-A-Pet, or another pet adoption website to check.

If you can’t find any goldfish in a shelter or rescue, rehoming situations are your next best bet. Look on Kijiji, Craigslist, or some other online reselling site to find your pet. Be sure that the seller did not breed the animals, and that you are not supporting unethical practices.

If you can’t find any goldfish in rehoming situations, shelters, or rescues, or if you want to show or breed your fish, find a reputable breeder. A good goldfish breeder is hard to find, but they always:

  • Gladly show you their entire home or facility where animals are kept, and introduces you to all their animals — both adults and offspring — including the mother and father of the pet you are considering purchasing
  • Openly talk about positive and negative traits of keeping goldfish
  • Have a home or facility that is clean and spacious, with large tanks that are free of debris
  • Only breed one or two species of animals (though this one is a bit flexible with fish keepers)
  • Ask you questions about your lifestyle and experience to ensure you’re a good match
  • Care for the goldfish properly

Supply list

  • Low and wide tank, or deep pond (a bigger tank means happier fish and less work for you)
  • Quarantine tank (as with the above tank, please see the sizing requirements)
  • Neutral pH organic sand
  • Light timer
  • LED light meant for aquarium plants and fish
  • Water test kits (pH, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, carbonate hardness+general hardness, and optionally, phosphate, calcium, total dissolved solids)
  • Powerful filter
  • Thermometer
  • Sinking goldfish pellets and/or gel food
  • Clamps for holding veggies
  • Safe aquatic plants
  • Powerful aerator that fits your tank size
  • Air stone(s)
  • Fish safe water pump
  • 2 water buckets that can each hold the amount of water you will be changing
  • Bacterial culture for your new tank/pond
  • Water conditioner(s)
  • At least three hides (for young, and/or common, and pond-dwelling goldfish it is necessary; optional for adult, and/or fancy, and tank-dwelling goldfish)
  • Extra tubing {optional, but recommended}
  • Aquascaping kit {optional, but recommended}
  • Accent rocks (avoid sharp edges) {optional}
  • Floating plant pots {optional}
  • Automatic food dispenser {optional}
  • UV sterilizer {optional}
  • CO2 machine {optional}
  • Fountain for pond {optional}
  • Fake plants {optional, not recommended}

Choosing a tank

Any tank or pond must have at least 5 gallons per inch for your goldfish, no matter what kind of goldfish you get. This is necessary no matter how many water changes you do a day, because it is a matter of psychological well-being, not the quality of the water.

As for water changes, you must monitor the water even more carefully the smaller the tank. In smaller tanks, the poisons are less diluted and are more toxic to your fish. Also, sudden changes are more likely to occur. I would recommend that you give each fish at least 10 gallons of water per inch. This way, you would most likely not have to change the water weekly, perhaps only once or twice a month. More space would mean less frequent and disruptive water changes, and it is safer for your fish.

Here is a list of some common and safe enclosures:

  • A 75 gallon or bigger long tank

Image result for 75 gallon sand fish

 

  • A 75 gallon or bigger indoor pond

  • A 100 gallon or bigger outdoor in-ground pond (must be at least 2 feet deep (half a metre), with 4 feet deep preferred (more than a metre))

Can I safely stunt my goldfish?

The short answer is that it’s very difficult to do safely, but has been said to have benefits in the long run.

Slowed or stunted growth does not tax the body as much as quick growth does, and it means that the fish will be able to live in only 5 gallons of water per inch if the correct procedures are in place. Firstly, infrequent water changes will allow the growth inhibition hormone to build up in the water. To allow for this, you must have a heavily planted tank, and your tank stocking –as far as the bioload goes– should probably not exceed 60% (although this is an estimate). The plants will remove the nitrates from the water, keeping the water free from toxic substances. The whole process is a very delicate balancing act, relying on the bioload and efficiency of the plants in the tank. To take full advantage of space, choose quick to grow plants that the goldfish will eat, so that you don’t have to introduce as many veggies into the tank per day. Water quality and the happiness of your fish is priority. Test your water frequently, and make emergency water changes as necessary.

There is a myth going around that if you stunt your goldfish, their internal organs will keep growing and the fish’s organs will painfully constrict inside the fish. Most likely this story originated from people who blamed stunting over poor water quality and stress for the death of their fish. This is not true, and stunting, when done properly, can actually help your fish live a longer and happier life.

Choosing a substrate

Sand is the best substrate for goldfish. They love to forage through it all day. It is not too good for plants, but those can be kept in special aquatic pots that have their own plant-friendly substrate. Keep in mind that only a thin layer should be used, as it does compact and trap gases that can be dangerous to your fish when they disturb the sand.

If sand really isn’t an option for you, you can use gravel, as long as it is not big enough to get lodged in your fish’s mouth while they sift through it. This does happen, and it may take about half an hour of stress and tweezers to get it out. Be aware that it does collect debris much more than sand does, and it must be vacuumed weekly to keep it clean.

While it is easier to clean, bare bottom tanks should be reserved for quarantine, not a permanent housing area. It is difficult to keep your fish stimulated adequately without sand to sift through.

Large and smooth pebbles can be used as decoration, but should never be the main substrate because it is impossible to clean properly.

What to look for in a substrate material:

  • Does not alter the quality of the water
  • Fun to sift through looking for food
  • Does not pose a choking hazard for the fish
  • Does not cloud the water for over a day after putting it in
  • Doesn’t pose a danger to extremities

Choosing a hide

All fish homes should ideally have hides. They are great for any prey animal, because they feel safe from predators while hiding in them. There must be at least 3 hides in a pond to protect the fish from predators. A single large hide for a 75 gallon tank is acceptable, although it is better for them to have more.

What to look for in a hide:

  • It must be able to fit a full grown goldfish in it without touching the body or bending the fins
  • It shouldn’t alter the water quality
  • It should have no sharp edges
  • It is better for it to have two exits, but not necessary

Choosing a filter

Choose a filter that can pump and filter the volume of your tank 4 times per hour minimum, with more being better so long as the water flow doesn’t stress your fish. Your filtration system should contain mechanical filtration (such as a sponge), biological filtration (something that holds the bacteria that lives in your filter, such as bio-cubes), and chemical filtration (such as active carbon).

The best kind of filter for a goldfish pond or tank is the canister filter, but it is one of the most expensive:

Image result for canister filter

The cheapest option for effective filtration in a tank is the hang-on-back filter:Image result for hang on back filter

If you want to add extra filtration to you tank in addition to your main filter, you can try a sponge filter:

Image result for sponge filter

A sump is really just a massive canister filter that you can customize. It is recommended for indoor tanks:

Image result for sump aquarium

  • Submersible filters are not recommended because they are inefficient, and take up valuable tank space, but they can be used as additional filtration:

Image result for internal fish filter

Under gravel filters are not recommended, because they are inefficient, can damage your plants, and are very difficult to clean.

Choosing decorations

This is your time to shine! Goldfish habitats are beneficial for all inhabitants in your home, especially you. The only restrictions are those presented by space, finances, and the need for safety for your fish. Don’t use wood that has been treated with chemicals, isn’t a hardwood, is poisonous, or not been boiled first. Rocks must be cleaned throughly and rinsed well. Fake plants must be made of fish-safe materials, and not have any sharp edges that could tear your fish’s fins. For inspiration, check out aquascaping books and references.

Choosing plants

Live plants are important to keep the water quality safe. Goldfish love to munch on most plants, but some are more resistant and unappetizing to the goldfish than others. Here are a few examples that have the generally the same water parameter requirements as goldfish, and can withstand their munching:

  • Amazon Sword plant

The leaves are quite a tasty snack, but it usually can grow faster than it is eaten. It can be anchored or kept in a pot.

Image result for amazon sword plant

  • Java fern

The leaves are hard and not very delicious, so most goldfish leave them alone. It needs to be anchored to a porous rock or wood, or kept in a pot.

Image result for java fern

  • Java moss

It should grow faster than it is eaten, if it is eaten at all. It can be anchored or free-floating.

Image result for java moss

  • Water sprite

It grows large and quickly, but should be kept trim by greedy goldfish. It should be anchored or kept in a pot.

Image result for Water sprite

  • Vallisneria Spiralis

It grows quickly and you may even need to trim it, if the goldfish can’t keep up. It needs to be anchored or kept in a pot (the goldfish might dig it up).

Image result for vallisneria spiralis

  • Hornwort

It is not favoured by goldfish, and it will need regular trimming to not overtake the tank. It can be anchored, free-floating, or buried under the substrate.

Image result for hornwort

  • Anubias

It is unlikely that your goldfish will want to eat this plant. It needs to be anchored to a porous rock or wood, or kept in a pot. Image result for anubias

Setting up your new tank

  1. Set up your tank, light, filter, thermometer, and other systems. Don’t turn them on until the tank is ready to cycle.
  2. Rinse the substrate you are going to use throughly, until the water runs clear. Arrange the substrate and decorations the way you want.
  3. Fill your clean water bucket with tap water, and condition the water. Test the water before and after conditioning until you have a good water quality.
  4. Place a plate or bowl on top of the substrate, and pour the conditioned water onto this plate until the tank is full. You may have to repeat step 3 a few times to fill the tank. Leave a gap of air between the lid and the waterline.
  5. Add the bacterial culture according to the instructions on the package.
  6. Add pure ammonia to get 4ppm (parts per million) daily, and test until you see the ammonia go down and the nitrite go up. After that, add ammonia to 2ppm while you test to see nitrite go down and nitrate go up. This may take anywhere from 2 weeks to 2 months to complete. During this step, you can adopt your goldfish and keep them in a quarantine tank. It must be already cycled, or you must do daily water changes, keeping up with their bio-load. Substrate and live plants are not recommended for quarantine, because they are so difficult to clean.
  7. When you see that the ammonia and nitrite are 0ppm after 24 hours of cycling a dose of 4ppm, you can add your plants.
  8. After waiting for about a week for the plants to settle in, you can finally add your goldfish!

This is a chart from FishLab on how your tank’s test results could look:

Cycling an aquarium chart

Here are a few examples of well set up tanks, although they would all benefit from a hide:Image result for goldfish tank solidgold aquaticsImage result for goldfish tank solidgold aquaticsImage result for goldfish tank sand

Setting up your new pond

Check to make sure that you are legally allowed to have a pond. If you are renting, is your landlord happy with the installation? Do you have a quarantine tank large enough for all your goldfish in the event of an emergency?

  1. Choose a pond location. Keep the pond away from overhanging trees and roots. Make sure you can see the pond from within your house, so that you can check up on the pond from inside throughout the day, as well as during your daily once-over outdoors. Do not keep ponds in an area easily accessed by the public, such as your front yard. They may accidentally harm your fish, or purposefully steal them. Pond supplies are expensive, and healthy and large goldfish are in high demand!
  2. Design your pond. Make sure the pond is at least 2 feet deep to prevent temperature fluctuations from harming your fish. To prevent predation, make the pond 4 feet deep or deeper, with a vertical drop directly from the edge to 4 feet deep. If you have children or pets, put a minimum 2 foot tall vertical barrier/extension of the pond around the edge of the pond. Make sure that the position of the filter and aeration will allow all the water to be moving and efficiently filtered.
  3. Choose the type of waterproof pond material you are using to build your pond. You can use pond liner, a preformed pond, or make your own! Be sure to do your research on this step especially, because it is difficult to redo. Make sure the pond base you are using is fish-safe; don’t use galvanized steel for this reason.
  4. Make sure you can handle the electrical load for your outdoor pond, and prepare the wiring accordingly. It is recommended to hire a licensed electrician for this step. It also helps to have access to a clean water source outdoors for your pond water changes. A shed is also useful for storing your extra supplies outdoors.
  5. Buy a canister filter, aerator, and/or pond pump. Make sure you have filtration that can handle the amount of water in your pond.
  6. Choose your plants according to your area and temperatures. Don’t add them until you have completed step 7.
  7. Set up and cycle your pond according to the instructions in the “setting up your new tank” section above. Add at least 3 hides in the tank that can hide all your goldfish at once from predators. Floating plants such as duckweed or water lettuce can also help protect your fish. Make sure that no more than 70% of the water surface is covered.
  8. Watch for wildlife and record their interactions with the pond. How likely are they to harm your fish? Take measures against their sneaky schemes. Protect your precious fishies!

Feeding

To avoid constipation, feed twice a day only what your fish can eat in 30 seconds. Alter the feeding frequency to gain or lose weight, not the amount. Never feed fish flakes or floating pellets, because they can affect the water quality and cause buoyancy issues in your goldfish. Don’t let goldfish eat anything off the surface of the water. Veggies must be available at all times. Don’t feed your fish pellets if they aren’t eating their veggies. Rinse all veggies before feeding. After 24 hours, remove uneaten veggies and replace with fresh ones.

Never feed goldfish in water colder than 15 degrees Celsius (60 degrees Fahrenheit).

Pellets:

Sinking pellets give your fish the opportunity to sift though the sand to eat, which is how they would eat in the wild, other than hunting other fish and eating plants. It is the cheapest way to feed your fish their protein, but it is prone to causing constipation.

Gel food:

Gel food is less likely to cause constipation, but is more expensive. It can be placed on rocks to simulate eating plant matter. It can be fed according to the instructions on the package.

Treats:

Daphina/water fleas and brine shrimp are examples of live foods your fish can hunt. Bloodworms and other protein sources need to be freeze-dried or frozen to reduce the risk of disease transmission. Treats should not be fed more than twice a month for adult goldfish. Fruits can also be fed as treats, but only in very small amounts.

Nutrient percentages to look for:

For adults, protein should be 30-40 % (essential amino acids for goldfish are Arginine, Cystine, Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, and Valine; plant-based protein is easier to digest than animal-based protein), fibre should be about 14% and fat should be about 10% (preferably from animal-based fat sources) in a healthy goldfish diet. Veggies are outside of these percentages, because they are free-choice. Goldfish under a year old need 40-80% protein depending on growth speed, age, and size, as well as less fibre. Vitamins that are needed include A, folic acid (B9), C, D, and K.

Daily veggie options:

  • Spinach
  • Broccoli (cooked)
  • Lettuce
  • Peas (cooked and shelled)
  • Zucchini (cooked)
  • Kale
  • Chard
  • Arugula
  • Cilantro
  • Carrot (cooked, and only in small amounts due to the sugar content)
  • Cucumber

Avoid feeding:

  • Sugary foods (fruits, candy, etc.)
  • Fatty foods
  • High protein foods other than those already mentioned
  • Carbohydrate heavy foods
  • Thin or water soluble foods

Water parameters

pH (potential hydrogen): 7.2 to 7.6 is recommended, although a pH of 7 to 7.8 is okay.

dKH (carbonate hardness/total alkalinity): 150? More research needed.

GH (general hardness): 200? More research needed.

Temperature: 18 to 21 degrees Celsius (66 to 72 degrees Fahrenheit), hibernation occurs between 0 to 15 degrees Celsius (40 to 60 degrees Fahrenheit)

Nitrate: under 20ppm

Nitrite: under 2ppm, with 0ppm preferred

Ammonia: under 0.5ppm, with 0ppm preferred

Chlorine: 0ppm

CO2 (carbon dioxide): differs per tank, try this calculator – https://aquariuminfo.org/co2calculator.html

TDS (total dissolved solids): 150ppm seems to be preferred, not enough information on this topic

Picture

Chart by the 2Hr Aquarist

Cleaning the tank

Change 15% of the water weekly, or as needed according to your test results. It is recommended to remove algae as it appears. Snails and other animals that eat algae can help you keep your algae down. A UV sterilizer can be used to reduce free floating algae and harmful bacteria, but be careful not to overdo it and damage your beneficial bacteria populations.

Illnesses

Most illnesses can be avoided with good care, but sometimes they may crop up during periods of stress or environmental changes. Be sure to quarantine new fish in your quarantine tank for a few weeks to a month before placing them in their new home.

Whitespot/Ich/Ick:

Occurrence – Uncommon

Who is at risk – All fish

Symptoms – White spots all over the body

Causes – A bacterial infection

Treatment – Ick medicine (follow instructions on the bottle)

More coming soon…

Extra Notes

  • Don’t keep goldfish in bowls unless they are filtered, aerated, and contain at least 10-25 gallons of clean water (that is within acceptable parameters) per goldfish.
  • Buried and semi-buried ponds are better for insulating against the cold. Use a heater to prevent hibernation and protect your fish from the cold if you have fancy goldfish or if you want extra protection.
  • Don’t allow young children near the pond or tank unsupervised.
  • Do not allow children to tap on the glass. It will stress the fish, who are sensitive to vibrations in the water.
  • If you have cats, you can set up a seat for them next to the tank, but don’t allow them to enter or touch the tank.

Resources

Comment if you find more helpful sources!

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